Psychology of Relationships

by Roger Moore

The following text is presented in the hope that we can take Psychosynthesis Typology to the next level of understanding. I have not depended solely upon Assagioli's recorded text but have intuitively developed a line of reasoning (thinking) that allows his work to continue. I have found myself reviewing theories of leadership with Assagioli's teachings in mind.

This paper is an integration of several different approaches to describing human behavior. None of these classical leadership theories have a basis in Psychosynthesis but all are explained and supported by Psyc hosynthesis. While I have focussed on business aspects of Differential Psychology, it has become apparent to me that a wider view of relationships in general is appropriate.

I would appreciate any comments including what is not clear or even what you may consider to be in error.

Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Objectives
  3. Pyschosynthesis Typology
  4. Personality Types
  5. Personality Differentiation
  6. Personality Integration
  7. Life Styles and Personality
  8. Characteristics of Behavior
  9. Personality Conflicts
  10. Person-to-Person Relationships
  11. The PST Life Style Model
  12. Correlation of Previous Models with the PST Model
  13. References

1. Introduction

Personal relationships involve the interactions of two or more people who need to communicate both emotional feelings and life style goals. The success of personal relationships depends upon the acceptance of individual behavior. Behavior defines our "personalities" in the minds of others and our inherent personalities cause us to behave in certain predictable ways. The purpose of this discussion is to provide the knowledge and tools to understand and accept variances in human personalities.

Around 400 BC, Hippocrates, the Greek philosopher wrote of the Four Humours when describing human behavior: sanguine (strong willed), choleric (quick tempered), melancholic (gloomy) and phlegmatic (indifferent). These were observations in a society much less complex than we have today. Although they can be used to describe behavior, they are only basic observations and do not delve into the true variances in human personalities. I refer to these ancient observations to merely point out that personality differentiation has been around for a long time.

By the beginning of the 20th century, the world was becoming industrialized and conflict among people with diverse personalities was on the increase. Four pioneers of modern psychology, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Abraham Maslow and Roberto Assagioli, developed techniques into the causes of conflict and dysfunction in a rapidly changing world. Each followed a different path. All left a legacy of knowledge.

Assagioli is the least known of the four, however he and Jung developed lines of reasoning that provide a basis for Differential Psychology (personality profiling). Jung wrote Jung's Theory of Personality Types in 1920 which was published by Princeton University as Psychological Types in 1971 [8]. Isabel Myers and Katherine Briggs later developed Jung's Typology into a widely used behavior measuring tool, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. (MBTI.) [12]. The questionnaire for the MBTI. relates to sixteen classifications of behavior based upon four pairs of opposing characteristics. Jung wrote of three opposing descriptions of behavior (extravert-introvert, thinking-feeling and sensing-intuiting). Myers-Briggs added a fourth (judging-perceiving).

Jung believed that differences in behaviors of people are due to chosen preferences towards a particular characteristic of personal interactions. Thus, he referred to variances in personalities as functional types with either dominant or inferior characteristics. He said that people have multitude of archetypes (impersonal, mythological characters) to drive them from within but one is not more important than another. Jung also did very little work on the integration of behaviors. Assagioli disagreed with Jung in that he believed that each person has a primary force from birth with one type of behavior being dominant over the others. This primary force theory has roots in Eastern religion so it has been viewed with skepticism by the "scientific" psychology community.

Assagioli published papers for several years which formed the basis for, The Act of Will [1] and Psychosynthesis [2]. He wrote Psychosynthesis Typology [3] which describes seven categories of being (archetypes) that cause people to behave in particular, predictable ways. Jung believed behavior to be the result of preferential choice while Assagioli believed that behavior is caused by inherent instincts. Jungian Typology focuses on resultant aspects of behavior while Psychosynthesis Typology (PST) relates to the causal aspects.


2. Objectives

By the time you complete this study guide, you will understand the variances in human personalities and how differing personalities interact. You will be able to:

At first, the subject of personality differentiation may seem quite complex. Although the underlying research and theories took several people many years to develop, it is actually simple. There are two common personality categories that I refer to as the Alpha's and the Beta's. One, Alpha, is driven by Will (survival) and the other, Beta, by Love (companionship). A third category, the Omega integrates traits of the Alpha's and the Beta's to live a "self-actualized" Participative Life Style with a high focus on purpose and people. This discussion primarily relates to the Alpha's and Beta's because these personality types are the most common.


3. Pyschosynthesis Typology

Psychosynthesis Typology is a branch of a broader field of study referred to as Differential Psychology which encompasses descriptions of variances in human behavior, both normal and abnormal. Several personality measurement tools are based on the principles of Differential Psychology including Hogan and Champagne [6], Holt [7], Hersey-Blanchard [5], Kiersey and Bates [9] and Myers-Briggs [12]. These tools focus on resultant (the effect) aspects of behavior and personality types. PST focuses on causes. As an example, presume for a moment that you are a very strong Will person. If you present yourself as a dictator, you may create an atmosphere of high effort with low emotional satisfaction. When you decrease the intensity of your Will behavior, you may be able to manipulate those around you into maintaining their efforts with less direct orders but the effectiveness of your direction will likely be reduced. If you follow another path by integrating a concern for people into your behavior, you can create a democratic atmosphere that allows participation of others in decisions affecting your relationship with them. The democratic process can be Participative (you make suggestions for discussion) or Facilitative (you allow others to make most suggestions). This differentiation in behavior between Will and Love can have significant effects on a relationship. The cause of you to be strong and forceful is your Will. The result of your strength projection to those whom you encounter is that you are viewed as Authoritarian. You evoke reactions in others accordingly. The future holds the opportunity for each of us to understand and accept the personalities of others. PST provides the knowledge and tools to determine our natural personality tendencies.


4. Personality Types

Psychosynthesis Typology is based upon seven descriptions of human behavior. They are:
  1. Willful
  2. Loving
  3. Active/Practical
  4. Creative/Artistic
  5. Scientific
  6. Idealistic/Devotional
  7. Organized

Although each of us identifies with and displays all these types of behavior in varying degrees, one will normally be exhibited more intensely than the others. The behavior that you project to others with the highest intensity is the personality for which you will be known. I am a "Scientific" type who likes a lot of detail as you will soon learn. These descriptions can be related to interpersonal relationships in marriage, friendship, business or social settings. The "personality" that each of us projects is a function of our behavior in the presence of others. The "way" people react to one another has been the focus of my utilization of Psychosynthesis Typology.

PST principles help to explain why and how your behavior affects others. PST tools are based upon seven components which relate to each other as we project ourselves to the world in which we function. The seven behaviors (Willful, Loving, Active, Creative, Scientific, Idealistic, and Organized) and combinations thereof in varying intensities provide the basis for describing the causal aspects of harmony and conflict in relationships.

Will (Alpha-1) Personality

The will has a directive and a regulatory function. [Assagioli (1)] It is a modifier of human behavior in that it increases or decreases the intensity of our physical, emotional and mental activities and energies. From the point of view of a scientist, it is easily observed that the Will to survive exists in all living organisms. It is at the core of life, from the smallest microbe that recoils from a destructive chemical to the largest mammal who exhibits flight or fight characteristics in the presence of danger. Life and Will cannot be separated. You can personally experience this Will to survive by going to the top of a tall building and walking over to the edge. Look downward and you cannot suppress the urge to step back. It comes from the deepest center of our existence.

The effect of Willful behavior is readily evident. Personal financial stability and physical survival are a direct result of the application of our Will. At times, this may be at the expense of those with whom we interface. Will Types are sensor-judgers [Myers-Briggs (12)] who are extraverts at work and introverts in a social setting. They tend to be controlling in a relationship.

The dimensions of Will, its aspects, qualities and stages, are very adeptly described in The Act of Will [Assagioli (1)] where he lists the six stages of willing: Purpose, Deliberation, Decision, Affirmation, Planning, and Execution. These stages should not be taken lightly. Failure of many relationships can very often be traced to a reduction or elimination of one or more of these processes of Willing. This book is recommended reading.

Loving (Beta-2) Personality

Love in a relationship is displayed as a concern for another person. Love Types are feelers [Myers-Briggs (12)] with a high concern for people. They live for companionship and are family oriented. They survive by depending upon relationships as opposed to exerting their Will to get their way. They are huggers and touchers, utilizing physical contact to convey their feelings. They are more interested in Facilitating (guiding) others to success than they are in their own achievements. This unselfishness can gain them considerable respect from others. They need to be needed.

Active/Practical (Alpha-3) Personality

The Active/Practical personality type is always busy with several activities or goals being pursued at a time. They are sensors [Myers-Briggs (12)] with little concern for feelings of others. They tend to be over-achievers and they do not like bureaucratic rules. They can be "work-aholics" to the detriment of personal relationships. They are usually quite intense. They like challenges and become easily bored with anything but a dynamic, ever changing relationship. Trial and error is the way they function best, accepting failures as a normal learning process. They are very goal oriented. Personal relationships tend to be taken for granted by the Alpha-3 type.

Creative/Artistic (Beta-4) Personality

The Creative/Artistic personality type seeks harmony through conflict. They tend to stir up emotions and create disorder. They return later to smooth over situations that they may have created earlier. Emotionally, they exhibit high and low mood swings. They are artistically creative with this characteristic manifesting in various forms. They can be excellent writers, artists, welders, brick layers, chefs, etc. Stress occurs with this type of person if they do not understand the natural creative process from idea through fermentation to implementation. They can experience mental "blocks" when they try to force creativity. They like colorful displays of clothing and are usually quite purposely disorganized.

Scientific (Alpha-5) Personality

The Scientific personality type likes a lot of detail and they are driven to understand how things and people function. Solving problems is their strong point. They are sensor-thinkers who have to understand the cause behind a problem. They tend to have very level emotions with little variance. They do not normally utilize intuition. Problem solving is by analysis. They like to talk about technical subjects and are socially attracted to like-minded people. They love to learn. Personal relationships are normally not very intense.

Idealistic/Devotional (Beta-6) Personality

Idealistic/Devotional persons believe that their "ideals" should be accepted and followed by everyone. They are perceptive and intuitive. The intensity of their Will and Love characteristics determines how vocal they are in projecting their beliefs. Their behavior can range from a devoted follower (with a low Will) to a rabid idealist (with a high Will). They like to preach and are usually good teachers when they believe in the subject being taught. They understand people issues but can be quite judgmental when ideals are involved.

Organized (Alpha-7) Personality

The Organized personality type follows rules and order. They like to keep track of things and are good planners. Since being organized is usually perceived as being efficient, they are rewarded for their orderliness. They are effective at managing budgets, maintaining files, planning parties and being on time. Their appearance and surroundings are usually very orderly. They like emotionally level relationships and usually accept most other types of behavior except the disorganized Creative/Artist, Beta-4 type.


5. Personality Differentiation

Alpha Personalities

Alpha people have primary behaviors from the 1-3-5-7 (Will-Active-Scientific-Idealistic-Organized) group. They are sensors-thinkers-judgers [Myers-Briggs STJ (12)] who like to assemble information and analyze it from a practical viewpoint. They are driven by a concern for purpose. Successful Alpha types utilize a moderate to very strong Will. Their Love (concern for people) characteristics are relatively low. They pay attention to detail, like clearly stated goals and are very systematic. They are usually quite successful in business utilizing extraverted behavior at work but their personal relationships are often for their benefit only. They are more introverted in social settings than extraverted in that they are not interested in socializing. They like to do things by themselves or with only one other person as opposed to participating in group functions. Their personal relationships build up to a moderately affectionate level and then stabilize. They are not comfortable discussing emotions. They are secure within themselves and they do not recognize that they need the security of a relationship until it is over.

Beta Personalities

Beta people have primary behaviors from the 2-4-6 (Love-Creative-Idealistic) group. They are feelers-intuitors-preceivers [Myers-Briggs FNP (12)] who function in relationships by being good listeners. Their primary focus is on concerns for people and they have moderate to very high Love characteristics. Their exhibition of Will is relatively low. They tend to identify with the problems of other people. They are more interested in socializing and personal bonding than they are in planning events or completing a goal. Most of the time, they let things happen. When there Will is developed to a moderate level, they are extraverted in social settings easily entering into conversations involving emotions. With a low Will, they are withdrawn and introverted in their behavior. They can be quite insecure in personal relationships where emotional reinforcement is low.

Omega Personalities

Omega individuals normally have primary characteristics from the 1-2-6 (Will-Love-Idealistic) combination of behaviors. They do not fit the Jungian classifications of dipolar opposites. They display combined Jungian opposing behaviors. They have integrated behaviors in that they are thinker-feelers and intuitive-sensors adapting these behaviors to situations as needed. They are self-actualizers requiring little outside influence to take appropriate actions to correct misunderstandings in personal relationships. They exhibit "tough love" characteristics when dealing with dysfunctional people and they are true to their ideals. Personal relationships are very real and meaningful for the Omega Type. They develop very secure and long lasting relationships.


6. Personality Integration

Jungian Typology [8] is based on very real, observable descriptions of behavior as dipolar opposites where he infers that people choose one or the other based upon learned preferences. I agree that one cannot be both an introvert and an extravert. In this case, behavior must be one or the other, however, Jungian theory excludes the integration of thinking-feeling and sensing-intuiting characteristics. Assagioli picked up where Jung stopped. Assagioli went beyond observation and developed methods to integrate differing behaviors. Psychosynthesis Typology [Assagioli (3)] is based upon the integration of behaviors which takes Differential Psychology to a higher level of understanding. It does not exclude Jungian Typology. It accepts it as being real, incorporates into a more complete model and moves on. This integration of the best traits of human behavior has been evident throughout history and it continues today. With a better understanding of the reasoning and causes, perhaps more individuals will "get it."


7. Life Styles and Personality

Behavior is a function of our attitudes (how we approach people physically and verbally), personal values (how we feel towards others) and thinking strategies (our thought plans for how we interact with others). Life Styles, as we all know, have a direct bearing on our happiness and the happiness of those around us. Do Life Styles determine behavior? Or, does behavior dictate a Life Style? The answer is yes to both questions. Some people become attached to material possessions, a house, new cars, nice clothes or other material items. This usually requires a strong Will (Authoritarian) Life Style to maintain possession of these things. [Life Style determines behavior.] Other people are very caring so they live a Loving (Facilitative) Life Style. [Behavior determines Life Style.]

For the purposes of this discussion, Life Styles are divided into four categories:
1. Authoritarian
2. Participative
3. Facilitative
4. Permissive

These categories indicate the intensity of the application of Will and Love characteristics when interacting with other people. The concept of Will and Love as modifiers of our inherent human behaviors is key to applying PST to relationships. Will and Love are components of a complex system of social order that is evolving in both society and personal relationships as more and more individuals become aware of their nature and benefit. These components inter-relate and affect each other in positive and negative ways. They cannot easily be isolated from our dynamic actions and reactions at home, work or elsewhere. The effect of a person's behavior on others is included in a PST Life Style Model (Figure 2) as a reference for understanding and reducing conflict in personal relationships.

The utilization of Will and Love in relationships is not a new concept. Descriptions of Authoritarian (Directive/Dictatorial) and Democratic (Participative/Facilitative) behaviors have been provided from many sources as noted in the references. By studying and observing person-to-person interactions first hand, similarities among existing descriptions of behavior are evident. Guidelines are provided herein for understanding normal personality diversities, forming effective relationships and reducing conflict due to personality variances.

Authoritarian behaviors have been prevalent throughout history and until the late 1960's, it was how many individuals operated. Focus on a goal was the primary tool against which success or failure was measured. Survival was primary; concern for others was secondary. During the 1960's, a social revolution began in the western industrialized nations that brought the expression of Love to a higher level of public awareness. This change in how individuals in society interact with each other was described by Douglas McGregor [11]. He provided descriptions for Theory X and Y behavior in business. His descriptions of the way people interact with one another at work also applies to personal relationships. Theory X is Authoritarian (dictatorial) behavior. Theory Y incorporates a concern for people into decision making. Concepts include aspects of a healthy ego and self-actualization in that the needs of others are incorporated into an individual's own needs. It recognizes that once basic needs for survival (money, health, security, etc.) are met, then additional personal satisfaction is required to maintain a stable relationship. Theory Y includes two Life Style descriptions, Participative and Facilitative. A Permissive (low Love and low Will) Life Style, which can be effective in limited situations, is not addressed by this model.

Authoritarian, Participative, Facilitative and Permissive Life Styles are exhibited in varying degrees. A person living an Authoritarian Life Style displays a high intensity of Will and they are goal oriented. Their behavior ranges from dictatorial to directive. A person living a Participative Life Style allows others to be involved in decision making processes. Their behavior ranges from directive to altruistic. Persons living a Facilitative Life Style allows others to reach decisions by majority agreement. They act to guide and not direct the path of other people. Their behavior ranges from humanistic to harmonious. Persons living a Permissive Life Style provide little if any input to others. Their behavior ranges from harmonious to submissive.

In the past, these four styles were based primarily upon the intensity of Willful behavior. The concept of applying a Loving concern for people in addition to a Willful concern for purpose is shown by a Four Matrix Grid, Figure 1. Although this model was developed for business relationships, it is applicable to life in general.

The PST Life Styles Survey provided herein includes the method for determining a location on the four grid matrix. An example is included in Appendix B.



High84*
Concern*FACILITATIVEPARTICIPATIVE
for42*
People*PERMISSIVEAUTHORITARIAN
Low0* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
04284
LowConcern for PurposeHigh
      Figure 1. People-Purpose Life Style Model



8. Characteristics of Behavior

Human personalities are a complex combination of behaviors. The primary personality type that we project to those with whom we encounter is determined by our most intense behavior. Of the seven components of behavior, the most common combination for men is the 1-3-5-7 (Will-Active-Scientific-Organized) which defines an Alpha personality. Alpha behavior is reinforced with rewards for production, activity, problem solving and orderly reporting. For women, a common combination is the 2-4-6 (Love-Creative-Idealistic) Beta personality. In groups or social settings where concern for people takes precedence over concern for a goal, the Beta behavior can be effective. One of the seven types of behavior will normally be more prominent than the others. That is, you may be known for your strong Will, your focus on Scientific facts or your Loving care for others.

The characteristics of behavior are divided into two tables to describe variances. Table 1 is indicative of Alpha persons where a goal is important. Table 2 is representative of Beta persons who are more people oriented. The information in Tables 1 and 2 is the basis of Differential Psychology awareness training in that it provides the descriptions of how individuals are perceived by those with whom they contact. For example, if you behave like a dictator, a strong willed manipulator, a forceful rule maker, or a person who demands order in the organization, you will be perceived as Authoritarian. Similar correlations exist for the remainder of the descriptions in Table 1 and those in Table 2. The survey questionnaire in Appendix A measures these variations in behavior and relates them to Life Styles.


***************************************************************
Table 1. - Variances in the 1-3-5-7 Alpha Personality
***************************************************************

(1)High Willful behavior with an Authoritarian Life Style - Dictator; makes demands on others; unrealistic.

(3)High Active behavior with an Authoritarian Life Style - Manipulates; ignores suggestions.

(5)High Scientific behavior with an Authoritarian Life Style - Enforces rules; disregards intuition.

(7)High Organized behavior with an Authoritarian Life Style - Focuses on order in their life; bureaucratic.

**************************************************************

(1)High Willful behavior with a Participative Life Style - Directive; allows input but makes final decisions.

(3)High Active behavior with a Participative Life Style - Strategic planner; active participant in challenging events.

(5)High Scientific behavior with a Participative Life Style - Seeks facts; does not get emotionally involved.

(7)High Organized behavior with a Participative Life Style - Follows rules; likes detail and administrative duties.

**************************************************************

(1)High Willful behavior with a Facilitative Life Style - Firm guidance towards their own personal goals.

(3)High Active behavior with a Facilitative Life Style - Indirectly manipulates for the good of the relationship.

(5)High Scientific behavior with a Facilitative Life Style - Suggests technical direction; likes to make lists.

(7)High Organized behavior with a Facilitative Life Style - Gets processes in order; good at planning and coordinating.

**************************************************************

(1)High Willful behavior with a Permissive Life Style - Self-repressed; ignores suggestions.

(3)High Active behavior with a Permissive Life Style - Busily inefficient.

(5)High Scientific behavior with a Permissive Life Style - Loner; likes books and data; ignores people.

(7)High Organized behavior with a Permissive Life Style - Delegates everything; does not check on progress.

**************************END OF TABLE 1*****************************


Individuals with Alpha personalities are purpose (goal) oriented. The intensity of their Will directly affects their Life Style. A high, overly developed Will in an Alpha person leads to an Authoritarian Life Style. They show little emotion towards people but can become very attached to things. They become more democratic in their behavior by suppressing their Will.

Beta people (Table 2) exhibit a high concern for people, animals and the environment. They may even display an unusually high regard for life in all forms. Their personalities often determine their Life Style which is usually Facilitative. They evolve to a more democratic Life Style by increasing Willful behavior. As they exert their Will, they become more Participative. If the Will of a Beta person is overly low, they tend towards a Permissive (submissive) Life Style.


***************************************************************
Table 2. - Variances in the 2-4-6 Beta Personality
***************************************************************

(2)High Love behavior with an Authoritarian Life Style - Exhibits tough love characteristics; firm but caring in dealing with others; realistic.

(4)High Creative/Artistic behavior with an Authoritarian Life Style - Instigates conflict; dramatic when deal with emotional issues.

(6)High Idealistic/Devotiional behavior with an Authoritarian Life Style - Focuses on global purposes; preaches.

**************************************************************

(2)High Love behavior with a Participative Life Style - Consoling; personable; becomes emotionally involved with others easily.

(4)High Creative/Artistic behavior with a Participative Life Style - Negotiates; likes to resolve conflict.

(6)High Idealistic/Devotional behavior with a Participative Life Style - Guides towards higher principles.

**************************************************************

(2)High Love behavior with a Facilitative Life Style - Guides others towards a greater concern for people.

(4)High Creative/Artistic behavior with a Facilitative Life Style - Guides to a middle ground position when conflict occurs.

(6)High Idealistic/Devotional behavior with a Facilitative Life Style - Provides intermediate goals as a means to an end.

**************************************************************

(2)High Love behavior with a Permissive Life Style - Obedient; follows instructions.

(4)High Creative/Artistic behavior with a Permissive Life Style - Cruises along; disagrees with no one.

(6)High Idealistic/Devotional behavior with a Permissive Life Style - Unquestioning devotion; a follower.

*************************END OF TABLE 2***********************


Each of us varies our behavioral characteristics to fit a given situation. For some, this skill comes by trial and error over time and many people develop it without a knowledge of Differential Psychology. For others, it is a natural process of learning and growth throughout life. Personality related behavioral problems are easily recognized. The determination of a cause and the implementation of solutions are where most personality models fall short. By increasing your knowledge of natural human behaviors, you can determine your natural (true) style within the framework of this model and predict affects your behavior may have on others.


9. Personality Conflicts

Conflicts occur almost daily in many of our lives. When disagreements and stress (unresolved conflict) reduce the effectiveness of a relationship, it is the responsibility of one or both parties to facilitate a resolution. Definition of the problem is the first step to resolving conflict. If the problem is behavior related, PST analysis can help to explain why the situation has arisen. Steps can then be taken to reduce or eliminate the cause of the conflict.

Husbands and wives, friends, business associates, and many other personal interactions can be a source of conflict. Because this discussion is directed towards relationships, person-to-person interfacing has been included as examples of potential personality conflicts (and harmonies) based upon inherent characteristics of behavior. Tables 3 through 9 describe normal reactions between individuals with diverse personalities when someone is exhibiting a democratic (Facilitative/ Participative) Life Style and their basic needs are being met. Variations in the style or activation of survival behaviors will alter the relationship and the resultant actions and reactions listed.


10. Person-to-Person Relationships

Alpha-1 Relationships

Table 3 shows the normal actions and reactions of individuals identified with any one of the seven primary types of behavior when they encounter an Alpha personality with a strong Will. Will Types (Alpha-1's) are easily recognized. They are very directive or in some cases, dictatorial when dealing with other people. They have a high tendency to create a situation of unresolved conflict (stress) because they do not allow participation and discussion by others. They are normally introverted in a social setting because they lack people (Beta) skills.


Personality TypeActions and Reactions
1) WILLFUL ARGUMENTATIVE (Wants own way.)
2) LOVING SUBMISSIVE (Needs to please.)
3) ACTIVE/PRACTICAL CONFLICT; STRESS (Goes in too many directions.)
4) CREATIVE/ARTISTIC STRESSED (Does not like orders.)
5) SCIENTIFIC CONFUSED (Needs detailed direction.)
6) IDEALISTIC/DEVOTIONAL QUESTIONS ORDERS (Dislikes commands.)
7) ORGANIZED COMPLIANT (Likes to get assignments.)
Table 3. - Willful (Alpha-1) Person-to-Person Relationships


Beta-2 Relationships

Table 4 shows the normal actions and reactions of individuals identified with any one of the seven primary types of behavior when they encounter a Loving Type (Beta-2) person. A Love Type is very social and extraverted. Dealing with people on an emotional level is what they do best. They are talkative and usually inquire about family and friends. Goals are secondary.


Personality TypeActions and Reactions
1) WILLFUL TAKES CONTROL (Gets own way.)
2) LOVING SOCIAL RELATIONSHIP (Both need to please.)
3) ACTIVE/PRACTICAL UNCONTROLLED BEHAVIOR (Goes in many directions.)
4) CREATIVE/ARTISTIC INEFFICIENT (Needs direction; gets love.)
5) SCIENTIFIC TAKES OWN PATH (Bores and ignores other person.)
6) IDEALISTIC/DEVOTIONAL ACCEPTS ORDERS (If beliefs are same as other person.)
7) ORGANIZED COMPLIANT (Does not ask for help.)
Table 4. - Loving (Beta-2) Person-to-Person Relationships


Alpha-3 Relationships

Table 5 shows the normal actions and reactions of individuals identified with any one of the seven primary types of behavior when they encounter an Active/Practical (Alpha-3) person. The Active/Practical Type performs with a lot of physical activity and often in a disorganized manner. They are always busy and usually exhibit a high degree of Will which is perceived as aggressive behavior. When they exhibit a high Will behavior in combination with their own, they can be very productive and results oriented. They tend to be quick to use whatever means necessary to carry out their intentions. When progress is slowed, they become impatient and jump to another path in pursuit of a goal. They strive to achieve the maximum results with a minimum of effort.


Personality TypeActions and Reactions
1) WILLFUL CONFUSED (Wants to be in charge.)
2) LOVING MISDIRECTED (Does not understand multiple direction.)
3) ACTIVE/PRACTICAL ACTIVITY (Goes in several directions.)
4) CREATIVE/ARTISTIC STRESSED (High-low emotions caused by redirection.)
5) SCIENTIFIC ANALYTICAL (Develops details; may not finish project.)
6) IDEALISTIC/DEVOTIONAL ENTHUSIASTIC (Activity generates ideas.)
7) ORGANIZED CONFUSED (Needs to finish one project at a time.)
Table 5. - Active/Practical (Alpha-3) Person-to-Person Relationships


Beta-4 Relationships

Table 6 shows the normal actions and reactions of individuals identified with any one of the seven primary types of behavior when they encounter a Creative (Beta-4) person. The Creative type is difficult to describe because of their normal tendencies to fluctuate between harmony and conflict in their behavior. Although they are characterized by having artistic talents, they do not have to create great paintings or beautiful music. In business, they create processes and outcomes.


Personality TypeActions and Reactions
1) WILLFUL CONFUSED (Cannot focus on a moving target.)
2) LOVING DEPENDENT (Gives love; gets confusion.)
3) ACTIVE/PRACTICAL CONFLICT; STRESS (Goes in too many directions.)
4) CREATIVE/ARTISTIC WASTES TIME (Neither can plan a schedule.)
5) SCIENTIFIC FRUSTRATED (Just gets going, then is redirected.)
6) IDEALISTIC/DEVOTIONAL STANDS BACK (Good for new idea development.)
7) ORGANIZED STRESSED (Too many conflicting directions.)
Table 6. - Creative/Artistic (Beta-4) Person-to-Person Relationships


In relationships, they may tend to be manipulative. Successful Creative types with a strong Will have learned how to effectively use conflict to increase harmony. They disrupt a process, usually stirring up emotions, and then return later to indirectly apologize by harmonizing divergent points of view.

Alpha-5 Relationships

Table 7 shows the normal actions and reactions of individuals identified with any one of the seven primary types of behavior when they encounter a Scientific (Alpha-5) person. Scientific behavior is a product of technology as modern civilization developed a need to improve "things" and to explain causes. The cause-effect relationship is at the core of this type of personality. A Scientific person is very detail oriented and likes to discuss technical issues. They display very little emotion.


Personality TypeActions and Reactions
1) WILLFUL STRESSED (Too much detailed direction.)
2) LOVING SUBMISSIVE (Gets no emotional support.)
3) ACTIVE/PRACTICAL COMPLIANT (Likes technical issues, not detail.)
4) CREATIVE/ARTISTIC CONFUSED (Tries too hard to please.)
5) SCIENTIFIC "BUDDIES" (Like to discuss technical subjects.)
6) IDEALISTIC/DEVOTIONAL SUSPICIOUS (Watchful of each other.)
7) ORGANIZED COMPLIANT (Likes detailed assignments.)
Table 7. - Scientific (Alpha-5) Person-to-Person Relationships


Beta-6 Relationships

Table 8 shows the normal actions and reactions of individuals identified with any one of the seven primary types of behavior when they encounter a Idealistic (Beta-6) person. An Idealistic type is devoted to beliefs and depending upon the intensity of their Will, they can behave as a "rabid idealist" (political causes are prime examples) to an "altruistic" person who has integrated the a concern for purpose with a concern for people.


Personality TypeActions and Reactions
1) WILLFUL RESPECTFUL (Recognizes authority.)
2) LOVING CARING (Gets high level emotional support.)
3) ACTIVE/PRACTICAL CAUTIOUS (Evaluates other person constantly.)
4) CREATIVE/ARTISTIC FOCUSED ACTIVITY (Ideals help to focus goals.)
5) SCIENTIFIC CONFUSED (Cannot relate to other person's perspective.)
6) IDEALISTIC/DEVOTIONAL DEVOTED (If beliefs are the same.)
7) ORGANIZED COMPLIANT (Idolizes other person.)
Table 8. - Idealistic (Beta-6) Person-to-Person Relationships


At a low Love, high Will level, Beta-6 persons are very impersonal and extremely focused on ideals. They believe that it is their duty to persuade others to adopt their beliefs.


Alpha-7 Relationships

Table 9 shows the normal actions and reactions of individuals identified with any one of the seven primary types of behavior when they encounter an Organized (Alpha-7) person. The Organized type works methodically, bringing order to disorder. They record and report progress. When in a relationship with an Idealist person, they bring events and actions together. They are excellent planners, projecting future activities and potential results. Self-discipline is a characteristic of this type of personality. They tend to utilize a moderate (Facilitative) Life Style as opposed to the forced discipline of the Will types. They are usually bureaucratic, following laws and rules to the maximum.


Personality TypeActions and Reactions
1) WILLFUL COMPLIANT (If goals are accepted by others.)
2) LOVING MOTIVATED (If emotions are not involved.)
3) ACTIVE/PRACTICAL RESTRICTED (Likes periodic disorder.)
4) CREATIVE/ARTISTIC STRESSED (Cannot be organized for very long.)
5) SCIENTIFIC COMPLIANT (Needs detailed direction.)
6) IDEALISTIC/DEVOTIONAL RESTRICTED (Likes to develop own system.)
7) ORGANIZED "BUDDIES" (Organization breeds organization.)
Table 9. - Organized (Alpha-7) Person-to-Person Relationships


Tables 3 through 9 are provided as a basis for analyzing possible conflict between individuals identified with opposing behaviors. Conflict can be useful if guided towards a positive outcome or it can be destructive if it causes unresolved stress in a relationship. There are no hard and fast guidelines as to how much conflict fuels creativity and how much causes disruption. Techniques for resolving conflict must be developed on an individual basis over time. Most successful people develop workable methods to resolve conflict. Mentors can be very helpful in this area.


11. The PST Life Style Model

Relationship dynamics is defined as the interaction of two or more people with one another. I invite you to observe interactions within your own daily lives. There will be times when the exact same people will behave entirely differently when interfacing with an Alpha person than they will when a Beta person is involved. This is due to the normal differences in reactions of people to differing personalities and behaviors. The effect of adding a concern for people (Love) to a concern for purpose (Will) in a relationship has been increasing as we approach the 21st century. The move by more and more nations to a democratic society has lead to increased democratic (Facilitative/Participative) processes. This evolution of behavior and understanding continues with the application of Differential Psychology to relationships. The PST Life Style Model provides tools to measure behaviors to guide ourselves and others towards a more productive and humanistic existence. Life Styles as they relate to the PST Model are summarized in Figure 2.


High84*HUMANISTICPOSSESSIVEALTRUISTIC
*
*FACILITATIVEPARTICIPATIVE
Concern* LOVE
for42* HARMONIOUS STRATEGIC DIRECTIVE
People*
*PERMISSIVEAUTHORITARIAN
Low7* SUBMISSIVE MANIPULATIVE DICTATORIAL
** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
74284
LowConcern for PurposeHigh
LowWILLHigh
      Figure 2. - The PST Life Styles Model



Figure 2 is scaled from 7 through 84 which indicates the intensity of a person's behavior towards goals and people as measured by the attached Types Personality Profile Survey [Holt (7)]. The intersection of the two scores for Will and Love locates the Life Style description that is projected to those with whom we interact.

Methods to determine Life Styles presented in past literature do not adequately discuss causes of behavior nor are guidelines provided to prevent and reduce conflict. This Model provides a basis for explaining behavioral differences and increases awareness of potential personality conflicts. When compared to previous models, the Life Styles Model integrates previous models into a cohesive guide for managing one's own Life Style. Will (concern for purpose) and Love (concern for people) are at the core of the Life Styles Model.


12. Correlation of Previous Models with the PST Model

The Four Matrix Model depicting Life Styles as Authoritarian, Participative, Facilitative and Permissive has been utilized to describe relationships in business. I have expanded it to include relationships on a personal level as well. Myers-Briggs published a widely used behavior assessment tool, the MBTI. which is not included in Table 10 because it correlates in overlapping areas with the descriptions provided in the Life Styles Model. Myers-Briggs patterned their work after Jungian typology which integrates both the causal and resultant aspects of behavior. Because of this, the MBTI. questionnaire is somewhat confusing when relating to Participative Life Styles. The MBTI. is discussed separately in the next section.

Psychosynthesis Typology is based upon defining and integrating behaviors so that we may communicate better with the many different persons we encounter. Assagioli in his book, The Act of Will [1], notes that the synthesis (integration) of the aspects of Will and Love is a challenge for all of us. The measurement and correlation of this integration is represented by adding an intensity scale of Will and Love in the Life Styles Model shown in Table 10.


Four Matrix ModelPsychosynthesis Typology ModelPST WillPST Love
ParticipativeAtruisticHighHigh
DirectiveHighMedium
AuthoritarianDictatorialHighLow
ManipulativeMediumLow
StrategicMediumMedium
PossessiveMediumHigh
FacilitativeHumanisticLowHigh
HarmoniousLowMedium
PermissiveSubmissiveLowLow
Table 10. - Correlation of the PST Life Style Model with Psychosynthesis Typology


The PST Life Style Model incorporates the four general Life Style categories of Authoritarian, Participative, Facilitative and Permissive into an expanded description of behavior and personality interactions. The Four Matrix Model is a basic building block to which I have added the midpoint of the grid which is "Strategic" behavior, a valuable function and often misused (manipulative) behavior in many relationships.


13. References

  1. Assagioli, Roberto, The Act of Will, Viking Press (US 1973), republished by Penguin Books (1974).
  2. Assagioli, Roberto, Psychosynthesis, Hobbs, Dorman & Co. (US 1965), republished by Penguin Books (1976).
  3. Assagioli, Roberto, Psychosynthesis Typology, Institute of Psychosynthesis, London (1983).
  4. Cullen, John, The Manager of the Future: An Introduction to Psychosynthesis Typology, International Association for Managerial and Organizational Psychosynthesis, Thousand Oaks, California (1987/1990).
  5. Hersey, Paul and Blanchard, Kenneth, Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human resources, Printice-Hall (1988).
  6. Hogan, R. Craig and Champagne, David W., Personal Style Inventory, The 1980 Handbook for Group Facilitators, University Associates, Inc., San Diego, California (1980).
  7. Holt, Lane, Development of Personality Assessment Instrumentation for Business Applications, International Association for Managerial and Organizational Psychosynthesis, Thousand Oaks, California (1984).
  8. Jung, C. J., Psychological Types, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey (1971).
  9. Kiersey and Bates, Please Understand Me, (1978).
  10. Maslow, Abraham, Motivation and Personality, Harper, New York (1954).
  11. McGregor, Douglas, The Human Side of Enterprise, McGraw-Hill, New York (1960).
  12. Isabel Myers and Katherine Briggs, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA (1980).


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